Wednesday, 12 September 2012

FYP II Week 4: H Bridge (LM293)

Concept of H-bridge

An H bridge is an electronic circuit that enables a voltage to be applied across a load in either direction. These circuits are often used in robotics and other applications to allow DC motors to run forwards and backwards. H bridges are available as integrated circuit, or can be built from discrete component.

H-bridge by using transistor

FYP II Week 2 - 3: LDR circiut (sensor)

LDR circuit already construct on breadboard

  Sensor circuit diagram

 Simulation on bright condition

 Simulation on dark condition

FYP II Week 1: 12v or 9V to 6V Converter Circiut

12v or 9V to 6V Converter Circiut

 converter circuit diagram

Simulation of constructed converter circuit

This circuit is use to convert 12V from battery of solar panel to 6V. The voltage needed to be converted because of the requirement of Servo Motor and sensor circuit. In picture above it already constructed and it being tested by using simulation on Proteus software and the result show that this circuit will practically function well on real world.
component in this circuit is:-

  • 330nF-1
  • LM7806(with heat sink)-1
  • 100nF-1

Week 12: Presentation for FYP1

esentation week. on this week we are needed to present about our Final Year Project

By Internet research and guideline of the RPS website, I have managed to complete this presentation slide on time. Before the presentation, many things that need to be in the focus, for example:
  1. Introduction 
  2. Problem Statement
  3. Literature Review
  4. Project objectives
  5. Rational of Developing The Project
  6. Block Diagram
  7. Project Schedule
  8. Projects budget
  9. Conclusion
  10. Reference
With help from the advisor and research from the internet, I managed to complete the presentation slide.
To see my completed presentation slide

Week 10: Present Work

Present Work of Solar Energy

·         Solar Tracker System Based on a Digital Heuristic Controller on 2011 by D. Kang, E. A. Martínez. This project present paper proposes a detection, orientation and tracking method based on a Digital Heuristic Controller, which activates the tracking device with photovoltaic panels so as to optimize yield. There are several proposals aiming at the same target, nevertheless this work aims at building a prototype with rising movement (elevation) up to 90° and azimuth up to 180°, which enables this device to adjust to any location in the planet, no need to refer to information on solar position along the day. This would position the tracking device here presented as an elevation azimuthal portable device, which can also be built with a “sleeping” mode so as to protect the tracker from strong winds.

Week 9: Previous Work

Previous Work of Solar Energy

  •  In 1747 in Paris Buffon tested to put together 168 mobile mirrors (20cm x 20xm). They were all mobile to better orientate the light.
  •  In 1868 Augustin Mouchot invented concentrated solar captors and developped several tracking systems and he published "La Chaleur Solaire et les applications industrielles" which deals with the solar power and its industrial applications. 
  •  "The time will come when Europe must stop her mills and factories for want of coal. Upper Egypt then, with her never-ceasing sun power, will invite the European manufacturer to move his machinery and erect his mills on the firm ground along the sides of the alluvial plain of the Nile, where sufficient power can be otbainted to enable him to run more spindles than a hundred Manchesters." -John Ericsson, Mechanic and Builder, July, 1887. 
  •  In 1900 in Portugal Padre Himalaya designed Pireliosforo. Thousands of mirrors over a surface of 80m² reaching 3.500° Celcius have been presented at the Exposition of Saint-Louis in 1904.

Week 8: History


        Ancient Greeks and Romans saw great benefit in what we now refer to as passive solar design—the use of architecture to make use of the sun’s capacity to light and heat indoor spaces. In 1861, Mouchout developed a steam engine powered entirely by the sun. But its high costs coupled with the falling price of English coal doomed his invention to become a footnote in energy history. Nevertheless, solar energy continued to intrigue and attract European scientists through the 19th century. Scientists developed large cone-shaped collectors that could boil ammonia to perform work like locomotion and refrigeration. France and England briefly hoped that solar energy could power their growing operations in the sunny colonies of Africa and East Asia. Solar power could boast few major gains through the first half of the 20th century, though interest in a solar-powered civilization never completely disappeared. In fact, Albert Einstein was awarded the 1921 Nobel Prize in physics for his research on the photoelectric effect—a phenomenon central to the generation of electricity through solar cells. In 1953, Bell Laboratories (now AT&T labs) scientists Gerald Pearson, Daryl Chapin and Calvin Fuller developed the first silicon solar cell capable of generating a measurable electric current. The New York Times reported the discovery as “the beginning of a new era, leading eventually to the realization of harnessing the almost limitless energy of the sun for the uses of civilization.”

Week 7: Block Diagram and Flow Chart

  Block Diagram Explanation

Solar radiance is the input and as the set point for this project. From the set point it sends error to the controller. The controller in this project is PID controller, to control the speed of the servo motor, PWM are needed to give a signal and control the speed of servo motor. Motion device or final control element here is servo motor. It received signal from controller and manipulated process of the solar panel direction by follow the direction of the sun and it minimize the angle of solar radiance. The output is the solar panel direction. LDR sensor will give a feedback to this system and the process will repeated until this project cannot detect the sun radiance.

Week 6: Problem Statement and Objective

Problem Statement 
  1. The major problems today is energy exhausted. 
  2. The installation of existed solar panel is in fixed installation typically is without a solar tracker.
  3. Therefore the power generation cannot be maximize.

      The main objective of this project is to design, build and proof that the solar tracking system can maximize the power generation. The other objective related with this project is:

I. To develop a tracking system that constantly tracking the sun during daytime.
II. To develop a tracking system those maximize the solar radiance.
III. To develop a tracking system based on LDR and LabVIEW.
IV. To develop a tracking system that control and monitor the movement of solar panel based on the intensity of light


Solar energy is the energy that is obtained from the sun. This energy helps and supports all life and Earth. Heat and light from the sun, along with solar based resources such as wind and wave power, hydroelectricity and biomass, account for most the available flow of renewable energy. Solar power is becoming popular, as a friendly environment renewable energy sources that produces no pollution, requires minimal maintenance and free energy from the sun. Solar energy has a wide variety of technologies and is flexible for different application. One types of solar energy is solar photovoltaic power. For example are the residential, commercial, industrial, agricultural, and transportation sectors.

Photovoltaic’s (PV) is a method that to generate electrical power by converting solar radiation or solar energy into direct current electricity using semiconductors that exhibit the photovoltaic effect. Photovoltaic power generation employs solar panels comprising a number of cells containing a photovoltaic material. Materials that are used for photovoltaic’s include monocrystalline silicon, polycrystalline silicon, amorphous silicon, cadmium telluride, and copper indium solenoid/sulfide.

         These solar photovoltaic systems are friendly to environment and can also be used to improve power quality and increase the reliability of the electric power system.