This LabVIEW programming use PID controller, PID controller is a proportional–integral–derivative controller (PID controller) is a generic control loop feedback mechanism (controller) widely used in industrial control systems – a PID is the most commonly used feedback controller. A PID controller calculates an "error" value as the difference between a measured process variable and a desired setpoint. The controller attempts to minimize the error by adjusting the process control inputs.
On week 4, i explain about LM293. LM293 is motor drive IC but it not compactible to my DAQ card because the current output from DAQ card is low. Because of that to make motor rotate 2 direction without using IC is by using relay with a same concept. In this new motor drive circuit there have 3 supply. at left is supply to make motor rotate on clockwise and at the right one is for motor rotate on counter clockwise. supply at the middle is the main switch that to turn of the motor.
On week 2 and 3 I already come out with the sensor circuit by using LDR but on this week I found that, the circuit output is too low for my programming so I create a new circuit and it simpler from previous circuit. in this new circuit I using 3 sensor, 1 for set point and another 2 is for sun direction detector.
A solar panel charges a storage battery. A control circuit monitors the battery's voltage. When the battery is fully charged, the circuit automatically turns on a power inverter and switches the appliance from running on grid power to running on the energy stored in the battery.
In the original circuit, a 555 timer IC was used to disconnect a battery from the solar panel when its voltage gets too high (to prevent it from over charging). In my design, the control circuit connects the battery to an inverter and an output circuit when the battery is fully charged.
An H bridge is an electronic circuit that enables a voltage to be applied across a load in either direction. These circuits are often used in robotics and other applications to allow DC motors to run forwards and backwards. H bridges are available as integrated circuit, or can be built from discrete component.
This circuit is use to convert 12V from battery of solar panel to 6V. The voltage needed to be converted because of the requirement of Servo Motor and sensor circuit. In picture above it already constructed and it being tested by using simulation on Proteus software and the result show that this circuit will practically function well on real world. component in this circuit is:-
·Solar Tracker System Based on a Digital Heuristic Controller on 2011 by D. Kang, E. A. Martínez. This project present paper proposes a detection, orientation and tracking method based on a Digital Heuristic Controller, which activates the tracking device with photovoltaic panels so as to optimize yield. There are several proposals aiming at the same target, nevertheless this work aims at building a prototype with rising movement (elevation) up to 90° and azimuth up to 180°, which enables this device to adjust to any location in the planet, no need to refer to information on solar position along the day. This would position the tracking device here presented as an elevation azimuthal portable device, which can also be built with a “sleeping” mode so as to protect the tracker from strong winds.
In 1747 in Paris Buffon tested to put together 168 mobile mirrors (20cm x 20xm). They were all mobile to better orientate the light.
In 1868 Augustin Mouchot invented concentrated solar captors and developped several tracking systems and he published "La Chaleur Solaire et les applications industrielles" which deals with the solar power and its industrial applications.
"The time will come when Europe must stop her mills and factories for want of coal. Upper Egypt then, with her never-ceasing sun power, will invite the European manufacturer to move his machinery and erect his mills on the firm ground along the sides of the alluvial plain of the Nile, where sufficient power can be otbainted to enable him to run more spindles than a hundred Manchesters." -John Ericsson, Mechanic and Builder, July, 1887.
In 1900 in Portugal Padre Himalaya designed Pireliosforo. Thousands of mirrors over a surface of 80m² reaching 3.500° Celcius have been presented at the Exposition of Saint-Louis in 1904.
Ancient Greeks and Romans saw great benefit in what we now refer to as passive solar design—the use of architecture to make use of the sun’s capacity to light and heat indoor spaces. In 1861, Mouchout developed a steam engine powered entirely by the sun. But its high costs coupled with the falling price of English coal doomed his invention to become a footnote in energy history. Nevertheless, solar energy continued to intrigue and attract European scientists through the 19th century. Scientists developed large cone-shaped collectors that could boil ammonia to perform work like locomotion and refrigeration. France and England briefly hoped that solar energy could power their growing operations in the sunny colonies of Africa and East Asia. Solar power could boast few major gains through the first half of the 20th century, though interest in a solar-powered civilization never completely disappeared. In fact, Albert Einstein was awarded the 1921 Nobel Prize in physics for his research on the photoelectric effect—a phenomenon central to the generation of electricity through solar cells. In 1953, Bell Laboratories (now AT&T labs) scientists Gerald Pearson, Daryl Chapin and Calvin Fuller developed the first silicon solar cell capable of generating a measurable electric current. The New York Times reported the discovery as “the beginning of a new era, leading eventually to the realization of harnessing the almost limitless energy of the sun for the uses of civilization.”
Solar radiance is the input and as the set point for this project. From the set point it sends error to the controller. The controller in this project is PID controller, to control the speed of the servo motor, PWM are needed to give a signal and control the speed of servo motor. Motion device or final control element here is servo motor. It received signal from controller and manipulated process of the solar panel direction by follow the direction of the sun and it minimize the angle of solar radiance. The output is the solar panel direction. LDR sensor will give a feedback to this system and the process will repeated until this project cannot detect the sun radiance.
The installation of existed solar panel is in fixed installation typically is without a solar tracker.
Therefore the power generation cannot be maximize.
The main objective of this project is to design, build and proof that the solar tracking system can maximize the power generation. The other objective related with this project is:
I. To develop a tracking system that constantly tracking the sun during daytime.
II. To develop a tracking system those maximize the solar radiance.
III. To develop a tracking system based on LDR and LabVIEW.
IV. To develop a tracking system that control and monitor the movement of solar panel based on the intensity of light
Solar energy is the energy that is obtained from the sun. This energy helps and supports all life and Earth. Heat and light from the sun, along with solar based resources such as wind and wave power, hydroelectricity and biomass, account for most the available flow of renewable energy. Solar power is becoming popular, as a friendly environment renewable energy sources that produces no pollution, requires minimal maintenance and free energy from the sun. Solar energy has a wide variety of technologies and is flexible for different application. One types of solar energy is solar photovoltaic power. For example are the residential, commercial, industrial, agricultural, and transportation sectors.
Photovoltaic’s (PV) is a method that to generate electrical power by converting solar radiation or solar energy into direct current electricity using semiconductors that exhibit the photovoltaic effect. Photovoltaic power generation employs solar panels comprising a number of cells containing a photovoltaic material. Materials that are used for photovoltaic’s include monocrystalline silicon, polycrystalline silicon, amorphous silicon, cadmium telluride, and copper indium solenoid/sulfide.
These solar photovoltaic systems are friendly to environment and can also be used to improve power quality and increase the reliability of the electric power system.
The contents of this guideline shall support the aims, objectives and schemes as
specified in the FYP Manual and Syllabus. It also explains the marking criteria to
guide the award of mark for assessed work.
The project proposal should have the following format:
This week task is to select projects and topics for the project has been selected.
Ideas for my project is:
1)Healthy checking machine
- this project is using IC(identification card) or MyCard as a medium to store the health data that has been check every month. using IC doctor can review the health level of patient for last months that patient check his health level, so doctor can conclude what patient need to do. this machine can check cholesterol level and diabetes level.
2) Power monitoring using LabView
- this project is for home used, it can monitor the power, voltage and current from supplier and its connect to DB(distribution board). this project is for user safety, this project will automatically switch off the mcb(Miniature Circuit Breaker) when it detect any of voltage and current leaking, and have a fault at a any point. this project also can switch on and off any plug, fan or any electrical device that connect to mcb.
as an introduction for this blog:
Mohamad Amin Bin Jamaluddin
bachelor in engineering of electrical
This week, we needed to select a supervisor or advisor to supervise our FYP (final year project). I am almost a week around the campus to find a supervisor consist of BMI lecturer, and finally I found Madam Norlida at the electrical section. She is willing to be my supervisor to supervise progress of my FYP.
This week BMI also made a briefing to students FYP and attendance is compulsory. On this briefing session, the RPS website has been introduced to the students and explained its use. All students who took FYP need to sign in to this website. There are new changes to this semester because of FYP students need to create a one blog special for FYP to replace the log book.